On the issue of the Irish border, there is a protocol on Northern Ireland (the “backstop”) which is attached to the agreement and establishes a position of withdrawal which will only come into force in the absence of effective alternative provisions before the expiry of the transition period. In this case, the UK will eclipse the EU`s common external tariff and Northern Ireland will stick to aspects of the internal market until such an event is carried out. Neither party can unilaterally withdraw from this customs union. The aim of this backstop agreement is to avoid a “hard” border in Ireland, where customs controls are needed.  On 15 November 2018, the day after the agreement was presented and the support of the British government cabinet, several members of the government resigned, including Dominic Raab, Secretary of State for leaving the European Union.  A “joint committee” of EU and UK representatives was established. The Joint Committee will play a key role in the completion of the issues contained in the protocol and in the withdrawal agreement in general. Key issues such as VERIFICATION of NI`s compliance with EU alignment, the provision that the protocol works as intended, the setting of criteria for determining whether goods entering the UK are likely to enter the EU customs union and ensuring that controls on goods travelling between the UK and Italy are kept to a minimum. As a result, the joint commission`s decisions will have a direct impact on issues related to freight transport between the UK and the NI, both in terms of logistics and paperwork. After the WAB becomes law, the withdrawal agreement must also be ratified by the European Parliament.
On 23 March 2018, EU and UK negotiators reached an agreement on the draft withdrawal agreement allowing the European Council (Article 50) to adopt guidelines for the framework for future eu-UK relations. Immediately after the announcement of a revised withdrawal agreement on October 17, 2019, Labour, the Liberal Democrats and the DUP said they could not support the new agreement.  The EU and the United Kingdom have reached an agreement on the withdrawal agreement with a revised protocol on Ireland and Northern Ireland (abolition of the “backstop”) and a revised political declaration. On the same day, the European Council (Article 50) approved these texts. This triggered Article 50 of the Treaty on the European Union, which defines the procedure for the withdrawal of an EU member state, thus opening a two-year countdown to withdrawal. Holders of protected geographical indications in the EU at the end of the transitional period have the right to use the uk geographical indication without verification and enjoy a “at least equivalent level of protection” as provided for by the existing EU scheme. However, this only applies “until a future agreement between the EU and the UK enters into force and enters into force. The Northern Ireland Protocol, known as the Irish Backstop, was an annex to the November 2018 draft agreement outlining provisions to avoid a hard border in Ireland after the UK`s withdrawal from the European Union.
The protocol provided for a provision of the safety net to deal with the circumstances in which satisfactory alternative arrangements were to come into force at the end of the transition period. This project has been replaced by a new protocol that will be described as follows. On 15 January 2019, the House of Commons voted with 230 votes against the Brexit withdrawal agreement the largest vote against the British government in history.  The government may survived a vote of confidence the next day.  On March 12, 2019, the House of Commons voted 149 votes against the agreement, the fourth-biggest defeat of the government in the history of the House of Commons.  A third vote on the Brexit withdrawal agreement, widely expected on 19 March 2019, was rejected by the House of Commons spokesman on 18 March 2019, on the basis of a parliamentary convention of 2 April 1604, which prevents British governments from forcing the House of Commons to vote several times on a subject already voted on